When one of the proprietors sold his share to the Quakers, this sale divided New Jersey into East Jersey and West Jersey; however, the border between the two remained disputed. Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania , which called for religious tolerance towards many, including local American Indians and the Religious Society of Friends.
As a proprietary colony, Penn governed Pennsylvania, yet its citizens were still subject to the English crown and laws.
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In , Dutch land given to Penn by the Duke of York was separated and once again became part of the Delaware Colony. From to , the revolution in England deprived Penn of the governance of his colony. The Pennsylvania Assembly took this opportunity to request expanded power for elected officials.
Upon visiting the colony in and , Penn eventually agreed to allow their Charter of Privileges to be added to the constitution. Delaware changed hands between the Dutch and Swedes between and A deputy of the Duke governed Delaware from to Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to acres, owned by the family that worked them.
Indentured servitude was especially common in the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though fewer worked in agriculture. Unlike New England, the Middle Colonies had richer, less rocky soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. Its large exports led to its constituent colonies becoming known as the Bread Basket Colonies. Pennsylvania became a leading exporter of wheat, corn, rye, hemp, and flax, making it the leading food producer in North America from to Broad navigable rivers like the Susquehanna, the Delaware, and the Hudson attracted diverse business, and New York and Philadelphia became important ports.
Abundant forests attracted the lumbering and shipbuilding industries to the Middle Colonies. In Pennsylvania, sawmills and gristmills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly. The colony also became a major producer of pig iron and its products, including the Pennsylvania long rifle and the Conestoga wagon. Other important industries included printing, publishing, and the related industry of papermaking. While the Middle Colonies had far more industry than the Southern Colonies, they still did not rival the industry of New England.
The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. The Penn family was Quaker, and the Pennsylvania colony became a favorite destination for that group as well as German Lutherans, German Reformed, and numerous small sects such as Mennonites, Amish, and Moravians, as well as Scotch Irish Presbyterians. Describe the culture that developed in the New Netherland region and identify the events that lead to the establishment of the New York colony.
New Netherland was the territory on the eastern coast of North America established by Henry Hudson in Turned back by the ice of the Arctic, Hudson sailed up the major river that would later bear his name. For the capital they chose the island of Manhattan, located at the mouth of the river explored by Hudson, which at that time was called the North River. New Netherland became a province of the Dutch Republic in For two centuries, New Netherland Dutch culture characterized the region, and their concepts of civil liberties and pluralism introduced in the province became mainstays of American political and social life.
Seeking to enter the fur trade, the Dutch cultivated close relations with the Five Nations of the Iroquois. The Algonquian Lenape people along the Lower Hudson were seasonally migrational. The Munsee inhabited the Hudson Valley highlands and northern New Jersey, while Minquas called the Susquehannocks by the English lived west of the Zuyd River along and beyond the Susquehanna River, which the Dutch regarded as their boundary with Virginia. The Dutch, through their trade of manufactured goods with the Iroquois and Algonquians, presumed they had exclusive rights to farming, hunting, and fishing in the region.
The American Indians, while willing to share the land with the Europeans, did not expect or intend to leave or give up access, however. Increasing encroachment by European settlers led to the early stages of violent conflict. Over the next few decades, wars with the American Indians erupted, as well as conflicts with the English.
The English takeover of New Netherland originated in the imperial rivalry between the Dutch and the English. During the Anglo-Dutch wars of the s and s, the two powers attempted to gain commercial advantages in the Atlantic World. The colony and city were renamed New York in his honor. The Dutch in New York chafed under English rule.
In , during the Third Anglo-Dutch War — , the Dutch recaptured the colony; however, at the end of the conflict, the English had regained control. The Duke of York never visited his colony, named New York in his honor, and exercised little direct control over it.
History of Pennsylvania
He decided to administer his government through governors, councils, and other officers appointed by him. The English continued the Dutch patroonship system, granting large estates to a favored few families. The largest of these estates, at , acres, was given to Robert Livingston in The Livingstons and the other manorial families who controlled the Hudson River Valley formed a formidable political and economic force.
Eighteenth-century New York City, meanwhile, contained a variety of people and religions—as well as Dutch and English people, and it held French Protestants Huguenots , Jews, Puritans, Quakers, Anglicans, and a large population of slaves. As they did in other zones of colonization, indigenous peoples played a key role in shaping the history of colonial New York. After decades of war in the s, the powerful Five Nations of the Iroquois, composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca, successfully pursued a policy of neutrality with both the English and, to the north, the French in Canada during the first half of the s.
This policy meant that the Iroquois continued to live in their own villages under their own government while enjoying the benefits of trade with both the French and the English.
The Dutch West India Company had introduced slavery in Although enslaved, the Africans had a few basic rights and families were usually kept intact. Admitted to the Dutch Reformed Church and married by its ministers, their children could be baptized. Slaves could testify in court, sign legal documents, and bring civil actions against whites. Some were permitted to work after hours earning wages equal to those paid to white workers. When the colony fell, the company freed all its slaves, establishing early on a nucleus of free blacks.follow link
The Colonial Period < History < American History From Revolution To Reconstruction and beyond
European colonization of New Jersey started soon after the exploration of its coast and bays by Henry Hudson. The original inhabitants of the area included the Hackensack, Tappan, and Acquackanonk tribes in the northeast, and the Raritan and Navesink tribes in the center of the state.
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In return for land, settlers paid annual fees known as quitrents. Land grants made in connection to the importation of slaves were another enticement for settlers. After one of the proprietors sold part of the area to the Quakers, New Jersey was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey—two distinct provinces of the proprietary colony. The political division existed from to The border between the two sections reached the Atlantic Ocean to the north of Atlantic City. Much of the territory was quickly divided after , leading to the distribution of land into large tracts that later led to real estate speculation and subdivision.
In , the two provinces were reunited under a royal, rather than a proprietary, governor. The governors of New York then ruled New Jersey, which infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused the governor of showing favoritism to New York. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates.
English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth, Jamestown, and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed only sporadically. Some townships emerged as important ports for shipping to New York and Philadelphia. Examine the religious and social factors that shaped the establishment of the Pennsylvania and Delaware colony. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.
The sea abounded in oysters and crabs, cod and lobster; and in the woods, there were turkeys "fat and incredible of weight," and quail, squirrels, pheasants, elk, geese, and so many deer that in places "venison is accounted a tiresome meat. Soon the newcomers found that grain would grow and that transplanted fruit trees flourished. And sheep, goats, swine, and cows throve in the new land. The new continent was remarkably endowed by nature, but trade with Europe was vital for the import of articles the settlers could not yet produce.
Here the coastline served the well. The whole length of shore provided innumerable inlets and harbors, and only two areas -North Carolina and southern New Jersey -lacked harbors for ocean-going vessels. Majestic rivers - like the Kennebec in Maine, the Connecticut, New York's Hudson, Pennsylvania's Susquehanna, the Potomac in Virginia, and numerous others - formed links between the coastal plain and the ports, and thence with Europe. Of the many large North American east coast rivers, however, only Canada's St.
Lawrence, held by the French, offered a water passage to the real interior of the continent. This lack of a waterway, together with the formidable barrier of the Appalachian Mountains, long discouraged movement beyond the coastal plains region. Only trappers and traders with light pack trains went beyond the seaboard.